The ocean is becoming more acidic, but what does that really mean? On a pH scale of 1 – 14, 1.0 is strongly acidic and 14.0 is strongly alkaline or basic; typically ocean waters are slightly alkaline and fall around 8.0-8.1 on this scale. Over the past hundred years, the pH of seawater has decreased, dropping 0.1 pH units. This is due to ocean acidification, a process that occurs when seawater absorbs carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air.

Ocean acidification research till date has looked at the effects of elevated CO2 and reduced pH on those organisms that form calcium carbonate (CaCO3) shells and skeletons, such as corals, molluscs, and coralline algae.More than a quarter of the carbon dioxide we release by burning fossil fuels is absorbed by the ocean where it reduces ocean pH and alters seawater carbonate chemistry. If we do not act to reduce our carbon dioxide emissions, these changes in ocean chemistry could have a devastating impact on many shell-forming organisms, such as corals and some planktons, and marine ecosystems as a whole.

Ocean acidification represents a key threat to coral reefs by reducing the calcification rate of framework builders. In addition, acidification is likely to affect the relationship between corals and their symbiotic dinoflagellates and the productivity of this association. However, little is known about how acidification impacts on the physiology of reef builders and how acidification interacts with warming.

So what can be done about ocean acidification? The obvious solution is to slow and eventually eliminate carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels and to develop approaches for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Unless there is a dramatic change in our fossil fuel use, projected human-driven ocean acidification during this century will be larger and more rapid than anything experienced by marine life for tens of millions of years. And the problem will be with us for a long time because it takes centuries to thousands of years for natural processes, primarily mixing into the deep-sea and increased dissolution of marine carbonate sediments, to remove excess carbon dioxide from the air.

Although there will be biological winners as well as biological losers, it is likely that the ocean of the future under high carbon dioxide levels will look quite different within the lifetimes of today’s children if we continue on our current course.

Indian Army Major Leetul Gogoi of 53 Rashtriya Rifles, has been awarded with the Chief Of Army Staff  Commendation Card by Bipin Rawat on his brave and deliberate efforts in countering the insurgent operations in the valley.

How did this start?

During the Lok Sabha by-election in Srinagar, on 9th April 2017 where ITPB personnel and polling staff in Utligam were surrounded by 1200 people, including women and children who were protesting and pelting stones on these staff members. In order to handle the situation, Major Leetul reported to the spot and realised with this arrival, the situation got worse and then he was forced to take strict actions against these peltors. His act was simple enough which reflects his presence of mind in that stressful situation – He tied a man named Farooq Dar Ahmed on the bonnet of his Jeep as a human shield.


Why after one month, this story is trending as headlines? 

Because Major Leetul has been awarded and even got clean chit as Army officials didn’t find anything wrong. As they felt it was the need of the hour! Major Leetul has also given a statement that, “Had I not done that, the situation would have caused 10-12 severe casualties in the area”

Here, the crucial question is, How would you react if 1200 Kashmiris were attacking you and pelting stones at you and your team. Put yourself in that situation and think how you would have reacted ?

Before making any justification on his decision, remember Safe guarding the democracy of this youth oriented nation is the primary role of Army officers and in order to completely justify their role, they can cross any limits, be it across borders, or be it fighting with their “own” Indians.

There are many questions which are still unanswered–

  1. What was the root cause of this act?
  2. Will the impact of this act will be limited to this act only?
  3. What could have been the possible casualties if this decision was not taken?
  4. Does the excessive intervention of outsiders caused blindness in our Kashmiri youth?
  5. Why after tieing Farooq on the bonnet​, Kashmiris stopped their “nationalist” game?
  6. Why does Hypocrisy lie in our decision when the role of Indian Army comes into the picture, we want them to protect us but why do we impose conditions on their work then?

All this happens due to a single reason, the lack of trust and belongingness the people of Kashmir have on Indian Army.

Social media plays a crucial role in allowing youth to exercise their freedom of speech and expression on public platforms and due to this reason citizens are divided between right and wrong.

What Major Leetul did, was the need of the hour! 

Our Indian Army is not leaving any stone untruned in protecting and guarding this 1.2 billion democractic people but their efforts need recognition, and such a recognition was provided by Chief Army Officer Bipin Rawat by handling over a commendation certificate to the Major. Such recognition motivates our Indian Army to push their limits and they don’t listen to any bureaucrat or political leader while serving the nation at their best!

Hence, we at Indians News, strongly support this decision of Indian Army and motivate them to go ahead with these sudden surprises! 



One of the most important topics that have come to debate in the recent past is the one where one’s culture is being influenced by the west. India is a culturally rich country having more than thousands of diversifying cultures which have their history dated back to the beginning , yet it has now fallen prey to the western influence. Thanks to globalization and education. In this forum I would like to bring to the reader’s notice that this has been written in a completely subjective note and hence it is merely voicing out my opinions.
The culture and heritage that we have inherited from our forefathers and ancestors have definitely created an identity for us, a one that has strongly established our existence in the world and making a stamp on everyone’s page signifying our importance and what we represent. There were/are some conditions and superstitions that we would question and yes we have succeeded in removing many forms of evil from our cycle. But at this junction right now, we are blatantly beginning to question the basic elements which are the roots of our culture. The questioning spirit brought about by the rise in intellectual knowledge has fuelled our inquisitiveness to an extent where we question our own identity (indirectly). Further the concept of the world as a global village has further reduced the proximity amongst the different nations thus bringing them closer. This has resulted in cultural interaction and learning one another’s culture. This interaction is very beneficial for all cultures as it educates the others and also increases their knowledge. It might also help them in a certain way to counter problems they face. However the people have now started blindly accepting the western culture without any basic questioning or logic. They have rather started to accept the culture largely because it is followed worldwide and is a pseudo trend. The world then believed that racially the westerners were superior to the rest of the world and now they believe that the lifestyle and culture of the westerners is the global standard for people and society. They however fail to realize that their own indigenous culture is the oldest and has some original meaning concealed in various layers and also it is the one which the world respects. Unlike the American culture which is borrowed from all over the world, ours is one which makes us proud.
We have seen people who forget their mother tongue to start conversing in English so that the world believes that they are educated and literates. We have seen people move on from dhotis and pajamas to jeans and t shirts. People have also moved on from roti and ragi to pizza and pepsi. Let us not forget our staple food is staple to us because it suits the climate and the weather and not because it is the only thing that we could afford. Let us remember that with questioning comes logical thinking and scientific reasoning. When 3/4th of the world respects India today, it is not because India is changing rapidly. Its because India has still managed to retain its vibrant culture even though so many centuries have gone past. Unlike what we do always we should not let our cultures go extinct and then try to revive it back. Rather let us set out on a path where we pay equal importance to all cultures and yet forget none.


Safai Karmachari Andolan(SKA) is a movement to eradicate manual scavenging in India. Founded in 1994 by Bezwada Wilson along with S.R.Sankaran and Paul Divakar, it aims at total eradication of manual scavenging and rehabilitation of all scavengers for dignified occupations. Its mission is the liberation of manual scavengers from this caste-based, inhumane occupation which is spread across India. The Safai Karmachari Andolan focuses mainly on making the scavenger community aware of their rights and dignity. They also provide them with the advice regarding various legal issues.

Before having more discussion on SKA, we must first know

  • What is Manual Scavenging?
  • Who are Manual Scavengers?

Manual scavenging refers to the manual removal of raw and untreated human excreta from buckets or from the pits of simple pit latrines. According to Indian law 1993 the official definition of Manual Scavenger is:

“Manual scavenger” means a person engaged or employed, at the commencement of this Act or at any time thereafter, by an individual or a local authority or an agency or a contractor, for manually cleaning, carrying, disposing of, or otherwise handling in any manner, human excreta in an insanitary latrine or in an open drain or pit into which the human excreta from the insanitary latrines is disposed of, or railway track or in such other spaces or premises, as the Central Government or a State Government may notify, before the excreta fully decomposes in such manner as may be prescribed, and the expression “manual scavenging” shall be construed accordingly.”

It often involves using the most basic of tools such as buckets, brooms and baskets. Manual scavenging is traditionally done by the members of the Dalit caste, usually from the Balmiki or Hela subcaste.

As per International Labour Organization there are three forms of Manual Scavenging in India

  • Removal of human excrement from public streets and “dry latrines”
  • Cleaning septic tanks
  • Cleaning gutters and sewers

In the year 1993 under the leadership of Narshima Rao ,the Indian Government passed The Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act”.  punishes the employment of scavengers or the construction of dry  latrines with imprisonment for up to one year and/or a fine of Rs 2,000.  

Then in 2013 Government passed another actThe Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act 2013″. The broad objective of the act is to eliminate unsanitary latrines and prohibit the employment of manual scavengers.

Despite progress, manual scavenging persists in India. According to the 2011 Indian Census , there are more than 2.6 million dry latrines in the country. It is most prevalent in Gujurat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Indian Railways is the biggest violator of these acts.

Thus to support them SKA was founded in 1994 by children of Manual Scavengers themselves for liberation from this ghastly occupation and dignity. Since then, it has grown progressively to become a national movement spread over 25 states of India, with the national secretariat in New Delhi.

While the primary focus is the rights of manual scavengers, SKA is also committed itself to working with all those engaged in ‘unclean’ occupations who fall within the ambit of ‘safai karmacharis’. SKA was instrumental in eradicating manual scavenging in as many as 139 districts, as of 2009.

In 2003 SKA along with its convenor filed the Public Interest Litigation in the Supreme Court.It was a major step in the eradication of manual scavenging.  They interestingly got an ironical pattern in the government responses. First, a total denial of existence of manual scavenging, next partial admission when they produced photographic evidence. Also they submitted a survey to the Ministy of Social Justice & Empowerment.

By 2007, the SKA felt the struggle was going too slow. The legal process had put the onus on the victims to prove manual scavenging existed. So they launched Action 2010, by which they vowed to end manual scavenging by 2010 by simply asking those engaged in the practice to leave the practice and find alternative work.

Strategic intervention’ for Action 2010
Year one – 2008 – ‘Occupational violence against Dalit women’
Year Two – 2009 – ‘stark reality of untouchability’
Year Three – 2010 – ‘Violation of Human Rights’

After the successful implementation of Action 2010, they organized Bhim Rath Yatra.

The Bhim Yatra is a journey of intolerance of the violence, discrimination and violation of our constitutional and fundamental rights. The journey is to expose the hypocrisy of the leaders and the shame of manual scavenging which is still rampant in the 21st century. It simultaneously spread Ambedkar’s ideas of social justice, liberty, equality and fraternity while proclaiming his war cry ‘educate, organise and agitate’.They also carried out Samajik Parivartan Yatra.

The Planning Commission of India constituted a sub-group on safai karmacharis with Bezwada as its convenor. The sub-group has submitted its report.

For Further details contact

Safai Karmachari Andolan
36/13 Ground Floor,
East Patel Nagar
New Delhi – 110 008
Ph: 011 – 25863166, 9311234793
Fax:011 – 25751482
Email.:[email protected]


On November 30, 2016, the Home Ministry issued the order under Section 3, The Prevention Of Insults To National Honors Act, 1971 about the new rule of standing for the National Anthem in theaters. This new step brought with it a lot of controversies. People claimed it as dictatorship governance. They said it is a restriction to their expression and a non-democrative move. There were a lot of debates and campaigns went against it. Their opinion is we love India and we respect our national anthem. There is no need to show it. But my question to all of them is, why? What is the problem in standing merely for 52 sec for your National Anthem. If you already respect it, why can not you show it by standing for 52 sec? How can your freedom get harmed by standing for your national anthem?

This step is not to show others that you love your country and are a patriot but to show yourself that you love your country. If you observe you will realize that every small move of yours affects you psychologically. I know you love your country but love for anything is like the waves of a river, the overall potential is always the same but the depth varies here and there because of the flow. In the same way our love for the country is always equal but it’s existence in our life varies. For example, no one will disagree with this fact that on Republic Day and Independence day or any other National day, we feel more patriotic when compared to other days. It is not that you don’t love your country on the other days but it is just that you get busy with your work that you seldom get time to remember your country. Some time it happens with your family also. You miss your family’s affection very much some time whereas you miss it less some other time but if you give two to five minutes remembering your family, consequently your love for your family increases.

So this 52 sec of mandatory is made to make you remember your country everyday. And in my view no one should have a problem in this. Remembering your country at a small interval or everyday will only increase your love for your country. Neither it will question your freedom nor your democratic governmental environment.

India has the world’s second-largest mobile phone user base with over 929.37 million users as of May 2012. In the year 2008 mobile phone changed the way it was. Mobile Phones became smartphones. It was not only for calling but useful for other purposes too. Before some years, mobiles were there just to call and converse with people if needed. But later on it became the approach for anything and everything. And I don’t think that anybody will deny the contribution of Android in this outcome. But very few know the story behind it.

Most of us think that Android was founded by Google, but it is not the reality. It was built by four not so known software engineers in the year 2003. ‘Andy Rubin’ was one of them. The intention behind it was to make a smart phone with an advanced operating system for digital cameras. But because of the poor response from market, they diverted their effort to make a operating system which can compete with Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile.

This whole process went very secretly, No body was aware of this project. Google then went with this innovation to enter the mobile market. HTC Dream was the first commercially available smartphone having Android as it’s operating system, released on October 22, 2008 under the supervision of Andy Rubin and group. Sundar Pichai, succeeded Andy Rubin as the next head of Android and Chrome OS before becoming CEO of Google.

People were a lot skeptical about Android in the starting but became fan of it later. Android also came into smart watches. But Sony was the first company to launch a smartwatch with Android OS in 2010. Android also developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, and Android Wear for wrist watches,each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are also used on notebooks, game consoles,digital cameras, and other electronics. Today after a decade of it’s invention Android has acquired 85% of the smartphone OS market share. Later this became the reason behind the stress in the relationship between Google and Android. Otherwise before some years iphone was configured with a number of Google application. We are surrounded by Android just like air.

India has more than 3,345 engineering colleges. Every year 1.5 million engineering graduates are passing out of these colleges. Nearly 33% of them run the risk of not getting a job. And for those who get a job the entry level salary is pathetically low. Most graduates are unemployable , a tragic reflection of the state of our academic institutions.

The curriculum in most engineering colleges is far behind when compared to the curriculum in other developed countries. Application oriented skills and innovative approach have not been addressed by engineering curriculum. The colleges do not involve their students in active , in-depth learning activities. Colleges continue to teach outdated concepts. Exams force students to memorize with no comprehension of basic concepts.

Even after 4 years of education in engineering colleges most students never feel connected to the subject. Most engineering graduates fail when they are asked to apply basic principles to solve practical problems. They are not able to do it and they need to be trained. The rote learning method has made the engineering students unable to think. They are unable to shift from unquestioning learners to innovators in job market.

India ranks 66th in the 2016 Global Innovation Index. Global Innovation Index is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for innovation and also success in innovation. Sundar Pichai , Satya Nadella and Shantanu Narayan are Indians. Then why is India lagging in innovation ?. Indians are capable of innovation but some factors restrict innovation in India.

Most Indians have the mindset of fulfilling basic needs , having comfortable lifestyle and being monetarily secure for future. Most people in the society are glued to ‘comfort zones’ which has resulted in job oriented frame of mind to have a comfortable future. Parents fear failure. They encourage their children to have a stable career which provides a good income. As a result engineers , doctors and MBAs are produced with the purpose of earning money. An innovator is not appreciated till he/she becomes monetarily efficient.

We lack in innovation because we are too busy earning our bread and securing our future. Indian education system kills the spirit of innovation among students. Instead of churning out engineers the colleges should empower the students to be capable of designing , developing and be more innovative.


KISS, when this word strikes in mind, almost everyone thinks the same. But after reading this article your mindset will change for this word.
Most of you know about Quora, right ?? So basically it is a question-and-answer site where questions are asked, answered and organized by its community of users. On Quora, a guy asked , “What is the most interesting fact that you know and I don’t, but I should?”
Someone replied to this answer with interesting but inspirational facts. It was about KISS (Kalinga Institute of Social Science). It might sound a institute which somehow help students with their studies or economically or so. But it is far beyond that.
KISS is a Non government organisation which is the world’s largest and most efficient NGO in India which was founded in 1993 by Achyuta Samanta. It is a residential institute for tribals of Bhubaneswar.

Facts about KISS :
1.KISS is a home of so many tribal students (who would be otherwise forced to beg for survival). 25,000 students get shelter, study, career development, and healthcare each year. Not only schooling but college for higher education upto post-graduation as they have KISS college for the same.

2. The students from this institute have achieved remarkable results in almost every field including IIT-JEE, CA-CPT and even in sports. One of the students had almost made it to Rio 2016 Olympics and six girls were selected as probables in Indian Women’s Team for Asian Women 7’s Rugby Championship to be held in Mumbai.

3. It prepares food for 25,000 students everyday and it is therefore counted as one of the India’s mega kitchen. It’s dining hall is spread in acres.

4. Not only the kitchen but it has its own waste management system which generates bio-gas by the organic waste which is supplied at its own kitchen.

5. When it comes to electricity, they uses solar energy to light the fans and LEDs.

The Director of KISS follows what it calls the “Art of Giving”, a humanitarian and philanthropic concept of simple living and high thinking.

The cry for liberty has resided in this world since the time it came into existence and was not just started with the birth of human race. However, it was started to be engraved as records only when the narration of tales of fights and victories begun. Every chapter in the history of mankind had its share of struggle to win this freedom. This war has been an integral part of our survival for so long, that no one can recall a period which was free from the battles against being chained.

Several of these conflicts were day to day events in the days when words like modernization and globalisation were mere concepts or ideas that was seen as the future of the world. It was dreamt that post those wars against the tyrants, the world will become one progressive family but did that really happen? Sadly, the ones against the autocrats got their cloaks made of the same outlook and began to rule the world. So what gain did these “modernization” and “globalisation” brought to us when we got our relationships buried beneath the claws of oppression that bore feathers of liberty but just for the sake of show.

If we stop to take a look around the world today not one place exists which is free from the smoke of terror and wails of pain. The constraints on the countries are no longer by a ruler and definitely not political at least in most of the cases. But what have deprived us of our freedom today are emotions and false interpretations. Greed for power, money, superiority and ego has driven the world to take desperate attempts to establish their authority over others. But what has been the biggest slap on our face is the chaining down of our very existence in the name of Religion- something which was created to bring peace in our lives but ended up creating demons.

Not one day goes by when a newspaper or news channels do not show massacre in some part of the world. Be it remote or the capital city, the loss of loved ones shoots bullets in the hearts of the onlookers alike. We want the new generation to believe that they live in a free world but how can we prove it to them when the first picture on the timeline of their social website shows a mother holding a blood stained shoe of her child who was shown his way out of his world because someone else was not fine with granting the non-believers of their ideologies the basic liberty to live their life.

From the middle school debates to the biggest conferences in the world, everyone brags about the need of peace but do they understand that their grant of freedom will not bring them the peace alone. What we need to understand is that there are a few captivations which lie way beyond the political and economic agendas. There is a large population out there which needs to be are liberal of the misconceptions they hold and the quench for authority they suffer from. The world needs liberty from these clasps because unless we are free from them, we shall forget what makes us human and eventually with no humans left, there will not be any relationship. Clock is ticking at its pace but events have started to take place faster. Now it’s our turn to decide if we can get to a path which makes us a family or continue to go on the same which has our doom awaiting us. Time to think!

“WHY I THINK BURHAN WANI’S KILLING WAS EXTRA JUDICIAL” – Kavita Krishnan’s article came up on my news feed..

The first apparent reaction and the expression i had was unknown to me until now… My first reaction was me being confused and the expression that i deciphered later on was a mix of disgust, confusion, disbelief, laughter and a phased out one.

Now i wont quote instances of Dr Shah Faesal (IAS) whoose father was killed by the Militants but still went on to become the topper or the numerous slain Army Officers and Soldiers dying everyday to achieve peace in the Area or other famous stories but a small instance that makes me believe that why Burhan Wani’s killing was just and the Army should receive Accolades for gunning the HM Commander Down.
I remember back in 2009 my father was posted somewhere in the valley (Army) where he befriended a kashmiri small time carpet merchant, now his home was in the interiors of Srinagar. The merchant very well knew who my father was what my fathers credentials were. He took us to his home deep in the interiors as we were on our way umm not in the army vehicle, neither was my father carrying a firearm nor without a Protection team neither was he dressed in the uniform, my dad confidentiality drove our tayaji’s Innova which Btw had a Punjab number. We visited his home as he invited us over. We had a Daawat. The entire family scrambled in action to arrange for our comfort.
Not that i ever thought of it at that precise moment but when i look back that if he had been the likes of anti army anti india… He could have easily handed us over to the terrorists and then that situation could’ve become the biggest news ever of an Army Officer along with his family being held hostage.
He too was facing from economic disruption poor facilities… His house and his shop were right where a small affair would lead to a curfew and where his shops would see its shutter down till gods knows of what length. He like any other father wanted better facilities. He like other humans wanted to succed. He like all of us was annoyed by the policies and promises by the govt.
He probably would’ve made alot of money the militants would give him for such a nice fish.

But he didn’t… He didn’t raise a gun he didn’t inflict blood he didn’t. He respected my dad’s friendship even though its difficult to stay where you could be BOYCOTTED, MARKED and even KILLED by the militants for having any sort of association with the Army.
That was day i realized that why Burhan Wani Like Elements can never succed can never make affects. Because amidst all those people who visited his funeral to pay homage to the Militant and those young boys who were payed a sum of Rs50 to pelt stones at the Security Forces lies one small carpet merchant trying to survive and earn a livelyhood like any of us. And is more than annoyed with the protests and riots and curfews due to which they are denied from their basic monetry income. And is annoyed to visit these funerals because if not present they would be marked by the terrorists.

Burhan Wani picked up his gun and went on to destroy the ‘n’ number of lives of the children, youth who he recruited to be a part of this deadly façade. These people were not willing to rebel he rather preyed on their weaknesses some wanted money for his mother’s operations some wanted money for his fathers broken shop some wanted for the wedding of his sister and some angry discruntled kiddo who had to much of an Ego to not let go his father’s slap in front of someone. He recruited them misguided them and streamed them into his way of thinking and lining. He manipulated them and took advantage. He disrupted peace and took lives of soldiers who have no motive to fight there because its not their native land but they laid their lives because its their MotherLand.
Burhan deserved to be killed.